Adjective is a word that tells us about or add to the meaning of a noun.
Possessive Adjective and Possessive Pronouns
Distributive Adjectives and Distributive Pronouns
Every is only adjective and it cannot be used as pronouns. But each can be used both as adjective and pronoun
While contemplating the relationship between adjectives and verbs, you should always remember that adjectives can come after verbs.
- She is a kind lady
- I like this pen
- She lives in a large house
- He is a strong player.
There are following two classes of adjectives:
- Descriptive adjective
- Determiner adjective
Descriptive adjective denote the quality, size, colour, shape etc of a noun.
Position of Adjective
Descriptive adjectives are used both attributively and predicatively wile Determiner adjectives are used only before the noun.
She is an honest girl. (Attributive use)
The girl is honest. (Predicative use)
Kinds of Adjectives
A. Descriptive Adjectives
- Adjective of Quality - -------------- Ugly, Heavy, Dry, Good, Red.
B. Determiner Adjectives
- Demonstrative Adjectives ----------- This, That, These, Those
- Distributive Adjectives --------------- Each, Every, either, neither
- Quantitative Adjectives--------------- Some, any, no, little
- Numerical Adjectives------------------ few, many all, several, one, first
- Interrogative Adjectives --------------Which, what, whose
- Possessive Adjectives ----------------- My, our, your, his, her, their, its
- Present/Past Participle Adjective -------- A moving bus, a wounded driver
- Relative Adjectives ------------------------- who, which, that
- Emphatic Adjectives------------------------- own, such, same, very
- Proper Adjectives-------------------------------Indian, Asian, American
- Exclamatory Adjectives------------------- What, Which, how.
- Articles as Determiner------------ a, an, the (see chapter on articles)
Distinction between Adjectives and Pronouns
- Demonstrative Adjective and Demonstrative Pronouns-
- Please get me that book. (Adjective)
- That is my book (Pronoun).
- This is my book(Adjective)
- This book is mine (Pronoun)
- It is her vanity box. (Adjective)
- This vanity box is hers (Pronoun)
- Either boy has stolen my book(Adjective)
- Neither book will serve my purpose (Adjective)
- I do not like either of the sisters. (Pronouns)
- We bought neither of the bikes(Pronouns)
- Every boy was present. (Adjective)
- Each boy was present (Adjective)
- Each of the boys will come. (Pronoun)
- Everyone of them is wasting money. (Pronoun)
Rules for Adjectives
- An adjective is a word or set of words that modifies a noun or pronoun. Adjectives may come before the words they modifyu.
- That is a cute puppy
- She likes a high school senior.
- Adjectives may also follow the words they modify.
- That puppy looks cute
- The technology is state-of-the-art.
- We use adjectives after 'linking' verbs, such as be, become, feel, seem, smell, sound, look, taste, etc.
- It looks interesting
- It tastes delicious
- his ideas are interesting
- Sometimes the adjective follows a verb, but it describes a noun or pronoun that comes before the verb.
- These strawberries tastes sour.
- The pickles are salty.
- Adjectives are used either attributively or predicatively.
- It is an easy problem (attributively)
- The problem is easy. (predicatively)
- We can use an adjective to describe the object of a sentence.
- His answer made his boss angry.
- Adjectives tell us how much - or how may - of something we're talking about.
- Please use three white flowers in the arrangement.
Here three and white are modifying flowers.
- We use 'no longer' or 'not any longer' to talk about the end of an action or state. 'No longer' is more formal.
- One day I could stand it no longer.
- I couldn't stand it any longer. I walked out and didn't go back.
'No longer' often comes in the normal mid position for adverbs, especially in more formal styles.
- 'Unlike' is an adjective; while 'unlike' is used as a preposition more often than not, although in formal contexts it can be used as an adjective with the meaning of dissimilar.
Unlikely == improbable; not likely.
- It is very unlikely that it will rain today.
Unlike == dissimilar to; not alike; not like; different from.
- I am unlike my sister in many ways.
- Cardinal adjectives are those types of number that answer the question, 'how many?'
- How many birds are there in the backyard?
There are zero birds
There are no birds.
Saying there are 'no' birds is the same as saying there are 'zero' birds.
If you want to say there is one. this required a singular noun.
2.How many balls are on the court?
There is one ball
There is one ball
Ordinal adjectives are numbers used for showing order in a series. You should always use the article 'the' before an ordinal numbers.
For all other ordinal numbers use the Cardinal number + 'th' like the fourth - the 4th
- A single adjective made up of two or more words is called a compound adjective. The word in a compound adjective can be linked together by a hyphen to show they are part of the same adjective.
- The security person has a heavy metal detector.
- I saw a green-eyed vulture
The easiest compound adjectives to spot are the ones that includes numbers.
- He bought a four-room house.
- The pilot flew a two-seater aircraft.
- Distributive adjectives are normally used with singular nouns. They include 'each', 'every', 'either' and 'neither' and are used for referring to the members of a group as individuals. After each of these distributive adjective, a plural subject is used, while the verb remains singular.
- Each participant was asked to complete a survey.
- Every participant was asked to complete a survey
- Either of these movies would be interesting to me.
- Neither pen will do, as I need to sign in pencil.
- Adjectives usually go before nouns unless one of the following verbs is involved; be, feel, smell, taste, sound, look, appear, seem . In these cases, adjective work more like adverbs.
- The child is small
- The child seems smalll
- The rock star was crazy
- The cat's tail is long.
- That shirt looks great on you.
- It is important to note that verbs that turn into adjectives are called participles. Usually the verb has 'ing' at the end of the root form, or it's the past tense., The adjective can be placed before the noun or after the verb.
- The smiling baby is really cute.
Here, smiling is used as an adjective, as is cute.
- This is my new washing machine
Here washing is acting like an adjective for machine.
- Many adjectives are participle form of verbs. The '-ed' form describes how someone feel. The 'ing' form describes the person or thing that causes the feeling.
- She was too frightened to say a word.
- It was a boring film.
- Possessive adjectives are used for showing possession or ownership of something. While we use them when we refer to people, it is more in the sense of relationship that ownership.
The possessive adjectives are: I - me, you - your, he - his, she - her, it - its, we - our, you- your, they - their.
- The possessive adjective are always located in front of the noun they refer to. We dp npt include an '-s' to the adjective when the noun is plural like in many other languages.
- Our cars are expensive.
- When there are two or more adjectives before a noun, opinion adjectives come before fact adjectives. Fact adjectives appear as follows:
- A silly old man
- A beautiful butterfly
- A new red dress
- There are many 'ed' or 'ing' adjective pairs derived form verbs. To avoid mixing these up, remember that that the 'ed' adjectives are used for describing how you feel and the 'ing' adjectives are used for what it is makes you feel that way.
- I feel tired
- I am bored.
- She was disappointed.
- When there are two or more adjectives that are from the same group the word 'and' is placed between the two adjectives
- The house is green and red.
- The library has old and new books.
- When there are three or more adjectives from the same adjective group, we place a comma between each of the coordinate adjectives.
- We live in a big green,white and red house at the end of the street.
- My friend lost a red, black and white watch.
- If the adjective aren't usually used together, separate them with a comma or conjunction.
- I'm looking for a small, good-tempered dog to keep as a pet.
- My new dog is small and good-tempered.
- IF you are using multiple adjectives which are commonly put together, there's no need for a comma between the adjectives.
- Look at the sweet little puppy!
- Adjectives of quantity show how much of a thing is meant. Adjectives of quantity (like- some, much, little, enough, all, no, any, great, half, sufficient, whole) are used for uncountable nouns only.
- I ate some rice.
- Numeral adjectives are used for countable nouns only and they show how many persons or things are meant or in what order a person or thing stands.
- I have taught you a few things.
- 'Later' and 'Latest: refer to time. 'Latter' and 'last' refer to position.
- I reached at 10 p.m. But he was later than I expected.
- When cardinal or ordinal adjectives are used together, an ordinal adjective precedes the cardinal adjective.
- The first-four boys will be given the chance.
- 'Farther' means more distant or advanced; 'further' means additional.
- He insisted on further improvement.
- We use 'as + adjective/adverb + as' to make comparisons when the things we are comparing are equal in some way.
- The world\s biggest bull is as big as a small elephant
- The weather this summer is as bad as last year. It hasn't stopped raining for weeks.
- 'Each' is used while speaking of two or more things; 'every' is used only while speaking of more than two.
- Each of the two boys will get a prize.
- To express quantity or degree, 'some' is used in affirmative sentences; 'any' is used in negative or interrogative sentences.
- Have you bought any mangoes?
- When two qualities of same person or thing are compared, the comparative in 'er' is not used; rather we use 'more'
- Hie is more wise than brave.
- The comparative degree denotes the existence of a higher degree of the quality than the positive. In comparative two things, the comparative degree of an adjective should be used and not the superlative degree of adjective. Remember that 'the' is always used before a comparative degree in this case.
- Which us the better of the two?
- Adjectives and adverb in the superlative degree are similar to the comparative degree, but use the -est ending and the word 'most' instead. In addition, the article 'the' must be placed before the adjective or adverb in the sentence.
- Justine is the fastest runner on the track team.
- Mr. Kapoor spoke the most highly of Ravi than the other interview candidates.
The superlative degree is used when something is being compared to three or more things.
A common mistake with double superlative is using both the ending -est and the word 'most' in the same sentence. Errors with double superlatives can also be identified in the sentence by reading the sentence out aloud. For Example, the prior sentence would be incorrect if it was written follows:
"Justin is the most fastest runner on the track teamIt would be best to remove 'most' and keep fastest in the superlative degree.
- Double comparatives are phrases commonly used for expressing increase or decreasing return. Double comparatives are often employed to underline the importance of doing or not doing a certain activity.
- The more you study the more you learn.
- The more time you take the better your assignment turns in.
- The less money I spend the less I have to worry about saving.
The format of double comparatives is as follows:
The (more/less) + (noun/noun phrase) subject + verb + , + the (more/less) + (noun) subject + verb
Remember that with 'more' and 'less' you are not comparing adjectives but rather actions. You can compare adjectives in the same way as:
- The easier the test is, the longer students will wait to prepare.
- The faster the car is, the more dangerous it is to drive.
- The crazier the idea is, the more fun it is to try.
- When comparison is made by means of a superlative, the thing compared should include the class of things with which it is compared.
- He is the strongest of all men.
- When a superlative degree is followed by a noun, in or any other preposition is used. When no noun follows superlative degree, 'of' is used.
- It is the most expensive car in the world.
- I am the happiest girl under the sun.
- She is the most sensible of the Smith girls.
- When two persons or things are compared, it is important that the same parts of thing should be compared.
- The population of Mumbai is greater than that of Delhi
- 'As.....as' is used for comparing two persons or things. In such a case, an adjective in preposition degree is used.
- He is as intelligent as his brother.
- You should remember that double comparatives and superlatives should not be used.
- He is the cleverest boy in the class.
- He is wiser than his brother.
- We use the superlative to compare somebody/Something with the whole group to which he/she/it belongs.
- Rani is the prettiest girl in the class.
Rani is prettier than any other girl
No other girl in the class is so pretty as Rani.
- Tea is the most popular beverage in the world.
Tea is more popular than any other beverage.
- The comparative adjective, like superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior, prefer, etc, should be followed by 'to' instead of 'than'
- He is senior to me.
- Adjectives, like unique, ideal, perfect, complete, entire, extreme, chief, full, square and round, which do not admit different degrees of comparison should not be compared.
- It is a unique thing.
- All the adjectives which refer to the same noun should be in the same degree of comparison.
- He is the wisest and the most honest worker in the office.
- 'Elder' and 'eldest' should be used for persons only. To be precise, they should be used for the members of the same family only. 'Older' and 'Oldest' are used for both persons and things.
- He is my elder brother